Enhanced approach procedures enabled by satellite technologies
- SJU reference # PJ.02-02 /Release 2019
- Status In the pipeline
Satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) and ground-based augmentation systems (GBAS), supported by Galileo or simply RNAV/PBN, offer pilots greater flexibility to fly published enhanced approaches such as steeper glide slopes, second runway aiming points, or a combination of both, in addition to curved approaches.
These procedures enable the noise footprint to be moved, typically closer to the centre of the airport, or to reduce the amount of noise at ground level near final approach segment. The operational combination of enhanced navigation capability provided by augmented satellite signals flown by equipped traffic, with a glideslope leading to a further runway aiming point, also enhances runway capacity and throughput. This reduces the risk of encountering wake vortices as aircraft on approach to displaced runway thresholds can benefit from reduced vortex separation minima for a specific combination of leader/follower aircraft pairs.
The candidate solution supports a number of options. Airports with closely spaced parallel runways (CSPR) can use enhanced arrival procedures to establish dual thresholds (DT), comprising a runway threshold staggered from the nominal threshold. Alternatively, a second runway aiming point (SRAP) enables aircraft to land on one of two published runway aiming points with corresponding glide slope, ground markers, lights, and visual aids. Airports can also publish approaches which feature a glide slope between 3 degrees (current slope) anywhere up to 4.49 degrees (IGS). A more advanced version of this, enabled by an on-board flight management function, known as adaptive increased glide slope (A-IGS), features a glide slope that suits the aircraft weight, destination wind, temperature, pressure, and landing configuration chosen by the pilot.
- Improved fuel efficiency and reduced noise
- Increased airport capacity
- Enhanced safety
- Increased operational and cost efficiency